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Law, Technology, & Warfare Research Cell

Cadets working on FalconSat
X-37B suspended from ceiling
FalconSat X
U.S. Air Force Academy -- (U.S. Air Force photo/Trevor Cokley)
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The modern battlefield is continually changing by adapting and integrating new technologies to gain efficiencies, lethality, and precision. From autonomous weapon systems and cyber operations to hypersonic and space-based weapons systems, new technology is rapidly developing, and new capabilities are being brought to bear both for and against our enemies. With each new technology, military lawyers are confronted with questions of their legality under the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) and International Humanitarian Law (IHL). As these questions and conversations arise, it falls on the practitioners to answer the tough questions and, perhaps more importantly, shape the conversations. Taking advantage of the spirit of technological innovation at USAFA, the Law, Technology, and Warfare Research Cell (LTWRC) offers faculty, cadets, and the wider Air Force community the opportunity to research new technologies and their legal application in warfare, ensuring the United States continues its technological advantage in an ever-changing battlespace.

  • The Law of Military Operations in Outer Space
  • The Law applicable to Cyber Operations
  • Emerging Technologies and the Law of Armed Conflict/International Humanitarian Law
  • Annual United States Space Command Legal Conference – This annual conference helps tackle the difficult legal issues involving the increasingly congested, contested, and competitive domain of space and how the United States can continue to promote responsible, peaceful, and safe use of space.


  • LTWRC Monthly Webinars – Each monthly webinar features a presentation by subject matter experts on legal issues involving military operations and the law.  Past presentations have included topics ranging from legal issues when targeting for space operations to conducting lawful countermeasures in outer space. Future webinars will explore similar legal issues with both cyber technology and emerging technologies (such as autonomous weapons, artificial intelligence, and unmanned aerial vehicles).
  • Space Law Community of Excellence – This is a community of academics and operational attorneys who collaborate to research the most challenging aspect of space law, with an emphasis on military operations.
  • Law and Technology Summits – Each summit brings industry together with military legal practitioners to explore new industry developments and their potential use in warfare.
  • Partner of the Woomera Manual – The Woomera Manual project seeks to develop a Manual that objectively articulates and clarifies existing international law applicable to military space operations. Projected publishing date of Jan 2022.
  • Member of the Law of Armed Conflict and Military Operations (LACMO) International Research Network – The LACMO Network is a consortium of universities, institutions, and research groups from around the world. Its aim is to promote and jointly execute research activities and projects in relevant areas of international law related to armed conflict, the law of military operations, and cyber security law.


Lt Col Timothy Goines
(719) 333-2729

Prof Jeffrey Biller
(719) 333-9152